- galley proof -
A proof taken of text copy before being made into pages.
- gang printing -
Grouping related jobs using same paper and inks. Grouping more than one job on a single plate.
- gathering -
Collating folded signatures in consecutive order.
- gear streaks -
Parallel streaks across a press sheet printed at the same interval as gear teeth on the cylinder of a litho press.
- genuine watermark -
Watermark made on the paper machine, with a dandy roll.
- ghost halftone -
A light halftone which may be overprinted with solid copy.
- ghosting -
Ghost images are unwanted images that reduce print value. Mechanical ghosting develops during the delivery of the printed sheet and is traceable to on-press conditions, ink starvation, form layout, and even to the blanket itself. Chemical ghosting, which occurs during the drying process of ink on paper, is especially bothersome because the condition cannot be detected until the job has been completed.
- glare -
- glassine -
Translucent, smooth paper made by extensive beating and subsequent supercalendering. Most commonly used as protective wrappers. Basic size: 24" x 36". Basis weight: 12 to 90 lbs.
- glazed -
Paper with a glossy surface, applied either during manufacture or subsequently. Various means of obtaining the patent leather-like surface. (See friction glazed, calender, plater and Yankee machine).
- gloss -
Gloss results from the specular reflection of light and occurs when specular reflection exceeds the diffuse reflection from various viewing angles. Paper gloss can be measured at various angles of illumination. See also Chapter 6.
- gold announcements -
Gold colored writing paper used for mail advertisements.
- goldenrod paper -
A specially coated masking paper used by strippers to assemble and position negatives for exposing onto printing plates.
- grade -
A type of paper or pulp which is distinguished from other papers or pulps on the basis of its characteristics such as its raw material content, manufacturing history, appearance and/or end use.
- grain -
Direction in which most of the fibers lie in a finished sheet of paper. Fibers flow parallel to the direction in which the paper travels on the paper machine during manufacture.
- grain direction -
A fundamental property of paper resulting from the alignment of fibers flowing onto the paper machine. Grain influences other characteristics of paper. A sheet of paper will contract more across the grain than it does parallel to the grain. Heavier weight paper, like cover and bristol may fold without scoring when folded parallel to the grain. A sheet of paper will generally offer greater resistance to being torn in the direction across its grain; also paper will demonstrate greater tensile strength in the direction of the grain.
- grain long -
Term used to designate that the grain of the paper is parallel to the longest measurement of a sheet of paper. The fibers are aligned parallel to the length of the sheet.
- grain short -
Perpendicular to grain long. Grain of the paper runs at right angles to the longest dimension of the sheet. Fiber alignment in grain short paper parallels the sheet's shortest dimension.
- graining -
Roughening the smooth surface of rolled metal plates enabling them to better retain water. Plates are regrained to remove all traces of previous images to produce a fresh grain.
- grainless plates -
Offset plates that do not require graining.
- grainy edges -
Surface imperfections which may extend for varying distances from the edge of a sheet formed on the paper machine. Such surfaces are rougher than other portions of the sheet. Cause: excessive cross-direction shrinkage of the sheet at the edges during the drying process.
- grammage -
The basis weight of paper stated in metric terms of grams per square meter and expressed as g/m2. Thus a sheet of paper 17" x 22" with a basis weight of 20 lbs. for 500 sheets would be expressed metrically as 75 g/m2. To convert from basis weight to grams per square meter (g/m2), multiply basis weight by the constant 1406.5 and divide by the number of square inches in base sheet.
- gravure -
Printing process which employs recessed ink-holding image which comes directly in contact with paper.
- gravure paper -
See rotogravure paper.
- gripper edge -
Leading edge of a sheet of paper as it passes through the printing press.
- gripper margin -
Unprintable back edge of a sheet of paper on which grippers bear, usually 1/2 inch or less.
- groundwood free -
See free sheet.
- groundwood papers -
Papers containing more than 10% mechanical groundwood or thermomechanical groundwood pulp. Less permanent and less bright than papers made from chemical wood pulp. They are sized, colored, finished and loaded with fillers in ways to make them suitable for any kind of printing. The use of mechanical wood pulp facilitates the retention of loading materials and yields attributes such as high bulk, high opacity-to-weight ration, softness and smooth finish which results in low cost and high speed printability.
- groundwood pulp -
A wood pulp obtained by subjecting wood to mechanical forces.
- guide roller -
Also called a cocking roller. Located on the roll stand of paper and the Dancer Roller. It can be cocked if necessary to compensate for a slight variation of paper.
- guillotine -
Device that is used to cut or trim stacks of paper to the desired size, similar to the French guillotine. Three types exist, manually operated, electrically powered cutters and automatic spacing cutters.
- gutter -
The blank space or inner margin on a press sheet from printing area to binding.